Birds of America
By John James Audubon, F. R. SS. L. & E.
WHITE-HEADED OR BALD EAGLE.
[Bald Eagle (see also Washington Sea-Eagle).]
HALIAETUS LEUCOCEPHALUS, Linn.
The figure of this noble bird is well known throughout the civilized world,
emblazoned as it is on our national standard, which waves in the breeze of every
clime, bearing to distant lands the remembrance of a great people living in a
state of peaceful freedom. May that peaceful freedom last for ever!
The great strength, daring, and cool courage of the White-headed Eagle,
joined to his unequalled power of flight, render him highly conspicuous among
his brethren. To these qualities did he add a generous disposition towards
others, he might be looked up to as a model of nobility. The ferocious,
overbearing, and tyrannical temper which is ever and anon displaying itself in
his actions, is, nevertheless, best adapted to his state, and was wisely given
him by the Creator to enable him to perform the office assigned to him.
The flight of the White-headed Eagle is strong, generally uniform, and
protracted to any distance, at pleasure. Whilst travelling, it is entirely
supported by equal easy flappings, without any intermission, in as far as I have
observed it, by following it with the eye or the assistance of a glass. When
looking for prey, it sails with extended wings, at right angles to its body, now
and then allowing its legs to hang at their full length. Whilst sailing, it has
the power of ascending in circular sweeps, without a single flap of the wings,
or any apparent motion either of them or of the tail; and in this manner it
often rises until it disappears from the view, the white tail remaining longer
visible than the rest of the body. At other times, it rises only a few hundred
feet in the air, and sails off in a direct line, and with rapidity. Again, when
thus elevated, it partially closes its wings, and glides downwards for a
considerable space, when, as if disappointed, it suddenly checks its career, and
resumes its former steady flight. When at an immense height, and as if
observing an object on the ground, it closes its wings, and glides through the
air with such rapidity as to cause a loud rustling sound, not unlike that
produced by a violent gust of wind passing amongst the branches of trees. Its
fall towards the earth can scarcely be followed by the eye on such occasions,
the more particularly that these falls or glidings through the air usually take
place when they are least expected.
At times, when these Eagles, sailing in search of prey, discover a Goose, a
Duck, or a Swan, that has alighted on the water, they accomplish its destruction
in a manner that is worthy of your attention. The Eagles, well aware that
water-fowl have it in their power to dive at their approach, and thereby elude
their attempts upon them, ascend in the air in opposite directions over the lake
or river, on which they have observed the object which they are desirous of
possessing. Both Eagles reach a certain height, immediately after which one of
them glides with great swiftness towards the prey; the latter, meantime, aware
of the Eagle's intention, dives the moment before he reaches the spot. The
pursuer then rises in the air, and is met by its mate, which glides toward the
water-bird, that has just emerged to breathe, and forces it to plunge again
beneath the surface, to escape the talons of this second assailant. The first
Eagle is now poising itself in the place where its mate formerly was, and rushes
anew to force the quarry to make another plunge. By thus alternately gliding,
in rapid and often repeated rushes, over the ill-fated bird, they soon fatigue
it, when it stretches out its neck, swims deeply, and makes for the shore, in
the hope of concealing itself among the rank weeds. But this is of no avail,
for the Eagles follow it in all its motions, and the moment it approaches the
margin, one of them darts upon it, and kills it in an instant, after which they
divide the spoil.
During spring and summer, the White-headed Eagle, to procure sustenance,
follows a different course, and one much less suited to a bird apparently so
well able to supply itself without interfering with other plunderers. No sooner
does the Fish-Hawk make its appearance along our Atlantic shores, or ascend our
numerous and large rivers, than the Eagle follows it, and, like a selfish
oppressor, robs it of the hard-earned fruits of its labour. Perched on some
tall summit, in view of the ocean, or of some water-course, he watches every
motion of the Osprey while on wing. When the latter rises from the water, with
a fish in its grasp, forth rushes the Eagle in pursuit. He mounts above the
Fish-Hawk, and threatens it by actions well understood, when the latter, fearing
perhaps that its life is in danger, drops its prey. In an instant, the Eagle,
accurately estimating the rapid descent of the fish, closes his wings, follows
it with the swiftness of thought, and the next moment grasps it. The prize is
carried off in silence to the woods, and assists in feeding the ever-hungry
brood of the marauder.
This bird now and then procures fish himself, by pursuing them in the
shallows of small creeks. I have witnessed several instances of this in the
Perkiomen Creek in Pennsylvania, where in this manner, I saw one of them secure
a number of Red-fins, by wading briskly through the water, and striking at them
with his bill. I have also observed a pair scrambling over the ice of a frozen
pond, to get at some fish below, but without success.
It does not confine itself to these kinds of food, but greedily devours
young pigs, lambs, fawns, poultry, and the putrid flesh of carcasses of every
description, driving off the Vultures and Carrion Crows, or the dogs, and
keeping a whole party at defiance until it is satiated. It frequently gives
chase to the Vultures, and forces them to disgorge the contents of their
stomachs, when it alights and devours the filthy mass. A ludicrous instance of
this took place near the city of Natchez, on the Mississippi. Many Vultures
were engaged in devouring the body and entrails of a dead horse, when a
White-headed Eagle accidentally passing by, the Vultures all took to wing, one
among the rest with a portion of the entrails partly swallowed, and the
remaining part, about a yard in length, dangling in the air. The Eagle
instantly marked him, and gave chase. The poor Vulture tried in vain to
disgorge, when the Eagle, coming up, seized the loose end of the gut, and
dragged the bird along for twenty or thirty yards, much against its will, until
both fell to the ground, when the Eagle struck the Vulture, and in a few moments
killed it, after which he swallowed the delicious morsel.
The Bald Eagle has the power of raising from the surface of the water any
floating object not heavier than itself. In this manner it often robs the
sportsman of ducks which have been killed by him. Its audacity is quite
remarkable. While descending the Upper Mississippi, I observed one of these
Eagles in pursuit of a Green-winged Teal. It came so near our boat, although
several persons were looking on, that I could perceive the glancings of its eye.
The Teal, on the point of being caught, when not more than fifteen or twenty
yards from us, was saved from the grasp of its enemy, one of our party having
brought the latter down by a shot, which broke one of its wings. When taken on
board, it was fastened to the deck of our boat by means of a string, and was fed
by pieces of catfish, some of which it began to eat on the third day of its
confinement. But, as it became a very disagreeable and dangerous associate,
trying on all occasions to strike at some one with its talons, it was killed and
When these birds are suddenly and unexpectedly approached or surprised,
they exhibit a great degree of cowardice. They rise at once and fly off very
low, in zig-zag lines, to some distance, uttering a hissing noise, not at all
like their usual disagreeable imitation of a laugh. When not carrying a gun,
one may easily approach them; but the use of that instrument being to appearance
well known to them, they are very cautious in allowing a person having one to
get near them. Notwithstanding all their caution, however, many are shot by
approaching them under cover of a tree, on horseback, or in a boat. They do not
possess the power of smelling gunpowder, as the Crow and the Raven are absurdly
supposed to do; nor are they aware of the effects of spring-traps, as I have
seen some of them caught by these instruments. Their sight, although probably
as perfect as that of any bird, is much affected during a fall of snow, at which
time they may be approached without difficulty.
The White-headed Eagle seldom appears in very mountainous districts, but
prefers the low lands of the sea-shores, those of our large lakes, and the
borders of rivers. It is a constant resident in the United States, in every
part of which it is to be seen. The roosts and breeding places of pigeons are
resorted to by it, for the purpose of picking up the young birds that happen to
fall, or the old ones when wounded. It seldom, however, follows the flocks of
these birds when on their migrations.
When shot at and wounded, it tries to escape by long and quickly repeated
leaps, and, if not closely pursued, soon conceals itself. Should it happen to
fall on the water, it strikes powerfully with expanded wings, and in this manner
often reaches the shore, when it is not more than twenty or thirty yards
distant. It is capable of supporting life without food for a long period. I
have heard of some, which, in a state of confinement, had lived without much
apparent distress for twenty days, although I cannot vouch for the truth of such
statements, which, however, may be quite correct. They defend themselves in the
manner usually followed by other Eagles and Hawks, throwing themselves
backwards, and furiously striking with their talons at any object within reach,
keeping their bill open, and turning their head with quickness to watch the
movements of the enemy, their eyes being apparently more protruded than when
It is supposed that Eagles live to a very great age,--some persons have
ventured to say even a hundred years. On this subject, I can only observe, that
I once found one of these birds, which, on being killed, proved to be a female,
and which, judging by its appearance, must have been very old. Its tail and
wing-feathers were so worn out, and of such a rusty colour, that I imagined the
bird had lost the power of moulting. The legs and feet were covered with large
warts, the claws and bill were much blunted; it could scarcely fly more than a
hundred yards at a time, and this it did with a heaviness and unsteadiness of
motion such as I never witnessed in any other bird of the species. The body was
poor and very tough. The eye was the only part which appeared to have sustained
no injury. It remained sparkling and full of animation, and even after death
seemed to have lost little of its lustre. No wounds were perceivable on its
The White-headed Eagle is seldom seen alone, the mutual attachment which
two individuals form when they first pair seeming to continue until one of them
dies or is destroyed. They hunt for the support of each other, and seldom feed
apart, but usually drive off other birds of the same species. They commence
their amatory intercourse at an earlier period than any other land bird with
which I am acquainted, generally in the month of December. At this time, along
the Mississippi, or by the margin of some lake not far in the interior of the
forest, the male and female birds are observed making a great bustle, flying
about and circling in various ways, uttering a loud cackling noise, alighting on
the dead branches of the tree on which their nest is already preparing, or in
the act of being repaired, and caressing each other. In the beginning of
January incubation commences. I shot a female, on the 17th of that month, as
she sat on her eggs, in which the chicks had made considerable progress.
The nest, which in some instances is of great size, is usually placed on a
very tall tree, destitute of branches to a considerable height, but by no means
always a dead one. It is never seen on rocks. It is composed of sticks, from
three to five feet in length, large pieces of turf, rank weeds, and Spanish moss
in abundance, whenever that substance happens to be near. When finished, it
measures from five to six feet in diameter, and so great is the accumulation of
materials, that it sometimes measures the same in depth, it being occupied for a
great number of years in succession, and receiving some augmentation each
season. When placed in a naked tree, between the forks of the branches, it is
conspicuously seen at a great distance. The eggs, which are from two to four,
more commonly two or three, are of a dull white colour, and equally rounded at
both ends, some of them being occasionally granulated. Incubation lasts for
more than three weeks, but I have not been able to ascertain its precise
duration, as I have observed the female on different occasions sit for a few
days in the nest, before laying the first egg. Of this I assured myself by
climbing to the nest every day in succession, during her temporary absence,--a
rather perilous undertaking when the bird is sitting.
I have seen the young birds when not larger than middle-sized pullets. At
this time they are covered with a soft cottony kind of down, their bill and legs
appearing disproportionately large. Their first plumage is of a greyish colour,
mixed with brown of different depths of tint, and before the parents drive them
off from the nest they are fully fledged. As a figure of the Young White-headed
Eagle will appear in the course of the publication of my Illustrations, I shall
not here trouble you with a description of its appearance. I once caught three
young Eagles of this species, when fully fledged, by having the tree, on which
their nest was, cut down. It caused great trouble to secure them, as they could
fly and scramble much faster than any of our party could run. They, however,
gradually became fatigued, and at length were so exhausted as to offer no
resistance, when we were securing them with cords. This happened on the border
of Lake Ponchartrain, in the month of April. The parents did not think fit to
come within gun-shot of the tree while the axe was at work.
The attachment of the parents to the young is very great, when the latter
are yet of a small size; and to ascend to the nest at this time would be
dangerous. But as the young advance, and, after being able to take wing and
provide for themselves, are not disposed to fly off, the old birds turn them
out, and beat them away from them. They return to the nest, however, to roost,
or sleep on the branches immediately near it, for several weeks after. They are
fed most abundantly while under the care of the parents, which procure for them
ample supplies of fish, either accidentally cast ashore, or taken from the Fish
Hawk, together with rabbits, squirrels, young lambs, pigs, opossums, or racoons.
Every thing that comes in the way is relished by the young family, as by the old
The young birds begin to breed the following spring, not always in pairs of
the same age, as I have several times observed one of these birds in brown
plumage mated with a full-coloured bird, which had the head and tail pure white.
I once shot a pair of this kind, when the brown bird (the young one) proved to
be the female.
This species requires at least four years before it attains the full beauty
of its plumage when kept in confinement. I have known two instances in which
the white of the head did not make its appearance until the sixth spring. It is
impossible for me to say how much sooner this state of perfection is attained,
when the bird is at full liberty, although I should suppose it to be at least
one year, as the bird is capable of breeding the first spring after birth.
The weight of Eagles of this species varies considerably. In the males, it
is from six to eight pounds, and in the females from eight to twelve. These
birds are so attached to particular districts, where they have first made their
nest, that they seldom spend a night at any distance from the latter, and often
resort to its immediate neighbourhood. Whilst asleep, they emit a loud hissing
sort of snore, which is heard at the distance of a hundred yards, when the
weather is perfectly calm. Yet, so light is their sleep, that the cracking of a
stick under the foot of a person immediately wakens them. When it is attempted
to smoke them while thus roosted and asleep, they start up and sail off without
uttering any sound, but return next evening to the same spot.
Before steam navigation commenced on our western rivers, these Eagles were
extremely abundant there, particularly in the lower parts of the Ohio, the
Mississippi, and the adjoining streams. I have seen hundreds while going down
from the mouth of the Ohio to New Orleans, when it was not at all difficult to
shoot them. Now, however, their number is considerably diminished, the game on
which they were in the habit of feeding, having been forced to seek refuge from
the persecution of man farther in the wilderness. Many, however, are still
observed on these rivers, particularly along the shores of the Mississippi.
In concluding this account of the White-headed Eagle, suffer me, kind
reader, to say how much I grieve that it should have been selected as the Emblem
of my Country. The opinion of our great Franklin on this subject, as it
perfectly coincides with my own, I shall here present to you. "For my part,"
says he, in one of his letters, "I wish the Bald Eagle had not been chosen as
the representative of our country. He is a bird of bad moral character; he does
not get his living honestly; you may have seen him perched on some dead tree,
where, too lazy to fish for himself, he watches the labour of the Fishing-Hawk;
and when that diligent bird has at length taken a fish, and is bearing it to his
nest for the support of his mate and young ones, the Bald Eagle pursues him, and
takes it from him. With all this injustice, he is never in good case, but, like
those among men who live by sharping and robbing, he is generally poor, and
often very lousy. Besides, he is a rank coward: the little King Bird, not
bigger than a Sparrow, attacks him boldly, and drives him out of the district.
He is, therefore, by no means a proper emblem for the brave and honest
Cincinnati of America, who have driven all the King Birds from our country;
though exactly fit for that order of knights which the French call Chevaliers
BALD EAGLE, Falco Haliaetus, Wils. Amer. Orn., vol. iv. p. 89. Adult.
SEA EAGLE, Falco ossifragus, Wils. Amer. Orn.,
vol. vii. p. 16. Young.
FALCO LEUCOCEPHALUS, Bonap. Synops., p. 26.
AQUILA LEUCOCEPHALA, WHITE-HEADED EAGLE,
Swains. & Rich. F. Bor. Amer., vol. ii. p. 15.
WHITE-HEADED or BALD EAGLE, Falco leucocephalus, Nutt. Man.,
vol. i. p. 72.
WHITE-HEADED EAGLE, Falco leucocephalus, Aud. Orn. Biog.,
vol. i. p. 160; vol. ii. p. 160; vol. v. p. 354.
Bill bluish-black, cere light blue, feet pale greyish-blue, tinged
anteriorly with yellow. General colour of upper parts deep umber-brown, the
tail barred with whitish on the inner webs; the upper part of the head and neck
white, the middle part of the crown dark brown; a broad band of the latter
colour from the bill down the side of the neck; lower parts white, the neck
streaked with light brown; anterior tibial feather tinged with brown. Young
with the feathers of the upper parts broadly tipped with brownish-white, the
lower pure white.
Wings long, second quill longest, first considerably shorter. Tail of
ordinary length, much rounded, extending considerably beyond the tips of the
wings; of twelve, broad, rounded feathers.
Bill, cere, edge of eyebrow, iris, and feet yellow; claws bluish-black.
The general colour of the plumage is deep chocolate, the head, neck, tail,
abdomen, and upper and under tail-coverts white.
Length 34 inches; extent of wings 7 feet; bill along the back 2 3/4 inches,
along the under mandible 2 3/4, in depth 1 5/12; tarsus 3, middle toe 3 1/2.